Figure 317 from Chapter 13 (Cilia and Flagella) of 'The Cell' by Don W. Fawcett M.D. The inconsistent orientation of the cilia in scanning micrographs does not accurately reflect their state in the living cell. All of the cilia on a cell would normally be in the same phase of their cycle of beating. Routine methods of fixation are incapable of instantly immobilizing them in the attitude typical of their effective stroke or recovery phase. They therefore tend to come to rest in a more or less straight neutral position. A copy of the chapter is available on the ASCB's BioEDUCATE website.
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