Freeze-fracture image of a chloroplast from barley (Hordeum vulgare) illustrating the characteristic size and distribution of particles on the cleaved thylakoid membrane surfaces. Particle distributions are different depending whether the thylakoids are stacked in grana (PFs, EFs) or unstacked (PFu, EFu). Other images in this group show the changes in particle distribution in a pale green mutant that lacks chlorophyll b.
Wildtype and mutant plants were were grown under a 16-hr day regime, harvested at 3 weeks, and chloroplasts isolated. For freeze fracture, isolated chloroplasts were made 30% in glycerol, plunge frozen, and cleaved, etched, and shadowed in a Balzers freeze-fracture unit. Replicas were examined with a Philips 300 transmission EM and images recorded on film. See Fig 4a in KR Miller et al. 1976 J. Cell Biol 71, 624-638.
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